A Look Back at Spider-Man 2099 #5 (1993)

Disclaimer: This is my original work with details sourced from reading the comic book and doing personal research. Anyone who wants to use this article, in part or in whole, needs to secure first my permission and agree to cite me as the source and author. Let it be known that any unauthorized use of this article will constrain the author to pursue the remedies under R.A. No. 8293, the Revised Penal Code, and/or all applicable legal actions under the laws of the Philippines.

Welcome back superhero enthusiasts, 1990s culture enthusiasts and comic book collectors! Today we revisit the future of 2099 through the Spider-Man 2099 comic book series of the 1990s.

Last time around, Miguel O’Hara/Spider-Man found himself in a very tricky situation as he found himself in confrontation with the Specialist while making sure that Kasey Nash (the lady who is involved with Miguel’s brother Gabriel) is safe. It should be noted that at this particular point of time, Spider-Man is still adjusting to his special abilities and he also has deal with matters over his work at Alchemax in his civilian form.

With those details laid down, here is a look back at Spider-Man 2099 #5, published by Marvel Comics in 1993 with a story written by Peter David and drawn by Rick Leonardi.

The cover.

Early story

The story begins with a weakened Spider-Man who mask is being held by the sword-wielding Specialist. As soon as the Specialist realized that the mask can’t be pulled off easily, Spider-Man scratches his body with talons and gained some distance away from him enabling him to wear his mask properly.

Meanwhile inside the facility of Alchemax, Tyler Stone watches the conflict between Spider-Man the Specialist recorded live by cameras. He orders his assistant to interrupt the scheduled programming of Private Eye and direct the live feed of the fight to the entire city. Stone orders him to alert Private Eye’s personnel.

Stone specifically wants Private Eye’s armed members to converge at the fight of Spider-Man and the Specialist, but states that no apprehension will be done. Stone has something in mind for Spider-Man…

Quality

The battle between Spider-Man 2099 and the Specialist was viewed by Alchemax.

What started in issue #4, this comic book expanded greatly without letting the narrative turning dull. The fight between Spider-Man and the Specialist pretty much dominates the majority of the story, and yet Peter David successfully told stories about Kasey Nash and Gabriel O’Hara while giving readers an inside look at Alchemax and its control on society. In addition, the futuristic Stark-Fujikawa corporation was given its own spotlight in the story complete with their own connection with the Specialist.

As the universe of 2099 was further emphasized, Spider-Man got developed further as an action performer. The more Miguel used his special abilities, the more he becomes proficient not only with fighting but also with defensive moves aided by enhanced reflexes. It was also here where Spider-Man gets to use his organic web a lot more which really challenged his opponent from Stark-Fujikawa.

More the narrative, I like the way Peter David raised the stakes and intrigue all throughout. Not only will you get to see Kasey Nash, Alchemax and Stark-Fujikawa perceive the battle, there is also a short and yet intriguing scene of Gabriel O’Hara with a certain lady who would later become a crucial part of the Venom 2099 storyline (read my reviews of issues #35, #36 and #37). I should state that the battle between Spider-Man and the Specialist built up the tension for the impactful moment very near the end of the story, and that is something you must see.

Conclusion

Spider-Man reacts with his reflex and talons.

Spider-Man 2099 #5 (1993) another compelling and enjoyable read from the team of Peter David and Rick Leonardi. The stakes were really raised high in the story complete with giving the reader a greater view of the 2099 New York society under the control of Alchemax and Spider-Man himself is just a small part of it who happens to stand out among all the people because of his special abilities. Clearly, the series at this point moved swiftly from the superhero origin stage into the dangerous society of the far future.

If you are seriously planning to buy an existing hard copy of Spider-Man 2099 #5 (1993) be aware that as of this writing, MileHighComics.com shows that the near-mint copy of the regular edition costs $60 while the near-mint copy of the newsstand edition costs $180.

Overall, Spider-Man 2099 #5 (1993) is recommended.

+++++

Thank you for reading. If you find this article engaging, please click the like button below and also please consider sharing this article to others. If you are looking for a copywriter to create content for your special project or business, check out my services and my portfolio. Feel free to contact me with a private message. Also please feel free to visit my Facebook page Author Carlo Carrasco and follow me on Twitter at  @HavenorFantasy as well as on Tumblr at https://carlocarrasco.tumblr.com/

Sony is clearly behind as technology giants move on with their respective ecosystems

As I am writing this post, the shockwaves caused by the Xbox-Activision-Blizzard deal are still being felt. As many Xbox-haters and PlayStation fanboys online could not help but become uneasy and restless because of the deal’s effects on them, Microsoft Gaming CEO Phil Spencer had officially talked with Sony’s top executives and described what happened via his Twitter account.

From Phil Spencer himself.

Take note of Spencer’s words “existing agreements” and “our desire to keep Call of Duty on PlayStation.” Existing agreements most likely refer to what Activision Blizzard made with Sony which I believe are years-long deals on games with regards to platform releases, marketing, post-release downloadable content, etc. Of course, such agreements can last long but NOT FOREVER. The business benefit for PlayStation from Activision Blizzard will someday come to an end. 

As for Microsoft’s desire for keeping Call of Duty on PlayStation, that clearly means that the corporation of Xbox is technically in-charge of not just the COD franchise but on the decision making, marketing and releasing its games on specific platforms. Sony and its PlayStation team are not in the driver’s seat here anymore. Whatever deals Activision signed with PlayStation before the acquisition will expire and they certainly will not be renewed once Microsoft and its Xbox team takes over. In due time, future COD games as well as other upcoming games and new intellectual properties of Activision Blizzard will become Xbox-exclusive in accordance to what Spencer declared before

We have games that exist on other platforms, and we’re going to support those games on the platforms they’re on. There are communities of players. We love those communities and will continue to invest in them. And even in the future, there might be things that have either contractual things, or legacy on different platforms, that we’ll go do. But if you’re an Xbox customer, the thing I want you to know is this is about delivering great exclusive games for you that ship on platforms where Game Pass exists, and that’s our goal, that’s why we are doing this,

This brings me to my next point – Sony as a global business entity is way behind Microsoft, Apple, Google and Amazon when it comes to establishing ecosystems that result tremendous business growth and reaching billions of customers worldwide respectively. The decades-old console-focused approach by Sony with PlayStation was indeed successful but not great enough to help it grow big time. Not even their Hollywood business nor Spider-Man could lift them up greatly. The weird thing was that Sony in previous decades had established an old ecosystem before PlayStation began.

To put things in perspective, posted below is a long excerpt from a recent Nikkei Asia article. Some parts in boldface…

The 10% drop in Sony’s stock price this week following Microsoft’s announcement that it will buy game content developer Activision Blizzard shows the market has belatedly awakened to an existential flaw in Sony’s kingdom. It lacks an ecosystem.

In terrifying contrast, Microsoft is a formidable ecosystem whose component elements, such as devices, operating system, browser, search engine, applications, content, cloud memory, work hand in glove to suck in captive users and never let them go. The ecosystem effect is all too familiar to owners of PCs that run on the Windows OS, which maddeningly redirects users to Microsoft’s Edge browser and Bing search engine against their will.

It is no accident that five of the world’s seven largest companies by market capitalization — Apple, Microsoft, Alphabet/Google, Amazon and Meta/Facebook — are ecosystems. Every consumer decision to buy a device, be it a PC, smartphone, Kindle reader, or game console, entails a surrender to an interconnected ecosystem. Promiscuity among ecosystems is possible but, by design, not easy. The ecosystems are at war and want to make you their captive.

Ironically, Sony was early to recognize the strategic significance of the ecosystem effect. Its decision to acquire CBS Records and Columbia Pictures in the late 1980s was inspired by the notion that controlling entertainment content could somehow push device sales, such as Betamax VCRs and Sony Walkman.

What Sony overlooked was that it would be self-defeating to make its controlled content exclusively available on Sony devices. Very few consumers would buy a Walkman just because it was the only way to listen to Michael Jackson. And Sony’s refusal to license Michael Jackson to non-Sony device users would perversely shut down third-party royalty revenue from the controlled content. Sony saw, but misunderstood and misapplied, the ecosystem effect between devices and content.

Sony’s next, more costly, wrong turn was its failure to anticipate and keep up with the morphing of portable audio devices like the Walkman launched in 1979 and iPod in 2001 into the iPhone debuted in 2007. The iPhone integrated, in a single handheld device, all of the functions formerly provided by the multiple discrete products in Sony’s consumer electronics lineup: phone, TV, camera, video and audio player and recorder, clock, calculator, and so on.

Sony’s stock price plunged from 30,000 yen ($260) per share in 2000 to 1,668 yen in 2009. Sony and the entire Japanese consumer electronics industry are still in disarray from the iPhone paradigm shift.

Unlike Sony, Apple founder Steve Jobs was a master at creating and orchestrating an ecosystem. In particular, he understood when to link content exclusively to a device and, just as important, when not to. Even now, Apple’s iOS is available only on Apple devices, unlike Microsoft’s device-agnostic Windows OS.
Initially, Apple’s iTunes music store platform was available only on Apple’s own devices. Then, in October 2003, “the day that hell froze over,” Jobs made the strategic decision to make iTunes compatible with and freely downloadable by non-Apple devices.

The result was not only to massively increase the audience and revenues of the iTunes platform. Non-Apple device users discovered how great iTunes was and that it worked even better on an iPod, leading to a surge in new iPod owners conveniently prepped for the coming transfiguration of the iPod into the iPhone.

The same interplay between devices and content is at the center of intense competition in the $180 billion global PC gaming industry. Dedicated gamers have a choice among three game-specific consoles — Microsoft’s Xbox, Sony’s PlayStation and Nintendo’s Switch.

The choice of device, in turn, entails a menu of device-specific exclusive content. Xbox and PlayStation each offer about 2,000 titles, but the bestselling 200-300 games for each tend to be exclusive to one or the other. A gamer’s choice of console implies a decision about preferred content.

But the relationship between game devices and content is evolving rapidly, tracking changes elsewhere in the internet universe. Games today can be played on any device, PCs and smartphones, not just a dedicated game console.

Gaming is now mobile. Game content is increasingly being streamed, just like Netflix and Amazon Prime. You can play games on YouTube. And an Xbox can be used as a PC to surf the Internet and do your homework.

The immediate threat to Sony posed by Microsoft’s acquisition of Activision Blizzard is that Microsoft will make the content it is acquiring — global blockbusters like Call of Duty and World of Warcraft — exclusive to Xbox users and invite defections from PlayStation users who want to keep playing their favorite games.

But this is just one element of the multifaceted ecosystem effects Microsoft can deploy to squeeze Sony. Sony should be nervous, for example, that it has no cloud or streaming capability of its own and relies on Microsoft’s own Azure platform to deliver streaming content to Sony users.

Sony’s game and network services segment now accounts for 30% of its revenues. It is hard to see how Sony can compete in the long-term in a narrow game-specific segment without credibly competing with the likes of Microsoft, Alphabet/Google and Amazon across the board in all segments of the device-content spectrum.

From a financial point of view, Sony is not only behind the tech giants with ecosystems. Sony simply does not have the major financial muscle needed to pull off massive acquisitions of game publishers (massive meaning more than $5 billion per each acquisition) that each have lots of game developers, intellectual properties and technologies. The Japanese giant does have a business ecosystem but it’s too small and too narrow compared to its Western competitors. This also means Sony reaches much less customers worldwide.

In a possible response to Xbox-Activision-Blizzard deal, Sony can try to acquire its fellow Japanese gaming entities like Capcom, SEGA or Square Enix and integrate the entity(s) into PlayStation, but that will require not just a whole bunch of money but also willingness to not just make big offers the other party cannot turn down, but also the willingness to overcome all the legal obstacles, solve all the complications, absorb all the employees, fund future projects already in development, etc. If the PlayStation team is willing on building up its very own exclusive properties, they could expand the work forces as well as the projects of their very own game studios.

The Xbox-Activision-Blizzard deal is very hard to match not just because of the financial value and organizational weights involved, but also because the said deal covers consoles, Windows PC, mobile devices, cloud gaming, browser gaming and much more. The PlayStation ecosystem is still console-focused and so far team PlayStation released only a few of its games on PC. Is Sony even working to improve PlayStation Now? Are the PlayStation executives realizing that their 3rd party marketing deals won’t lift up their corporation and consumer base anymore? Has it occurred to the PlayStation executives that future games of the Crash Bandicoot and Spyro The Dragon franchises (both of which are permanently identified with Sony’s gaming brand due to exclusive games released on the first PlayStation console) will be released only on Xbox platforms?

As mentioned in the Nikkei Asia article above, business ecosystems are not perfect and they have their flaws that affect customers in bad ways. As such, the ecosystem powers and organizers should do their work to be more user-friendly and be more consumer-oriented. Still, the ecosystem approach to business has proven to be very effective with regards to reaching the widest number of consumers worldwide as well as driving business growth to new heights, not to mention generating economic benefits for business partners involved (example: credit card companies whose users buy on Amazon, Xbox network, Google, etc.) No amount of sales of Final Fantasy games and Street Fighter games exclusive to PlayStation consoles will ever match that. 

As for the console fanboys who still hate Xbox, they should learn to stop living with fantasy and wake up to reality. Time to grow up.

In ending this piece, posted below are videos related to Xbox and the Activision Blizzard deal…

+++++

Thank you for reading. If you find this article engaging, please click the like button below and also please consider sharing this article to others. If you are looking for a copywriter to create content for your special project or business, check out my services and my portfolio. Feel free to contact me with a private message. Also please feel free to visit my Facebook page Author Carlo Carrasco and follow me on Twitter at  @HavenorFantasy as well as on Tumblr at https://carlocarrasco.tumblr.com/

A Look Back at Spider-Man and Batman: Disordered Minds (1995)

Disclaimer: This is my original work with details sourced from reading the comic book and doing personal research. Anyone who wants to use this article, in part or in whole, needs to secure first my permission and agree to cite me as the source and author. Let it be known that any unauthorized use of this article will constrain the author to pursue the remedies under R.A. No. 8293, the Revised Penal Code, and/or all applicable legal actions under the laws of the Philippines.

Welcome back, superhero enthusiasts, 1990s culture enthusiasts and comic book collectors! Today we will take a look back at a certain crossover comic book that involved both Marvel Comics and DC Comics published in the mid-1990s. On my part, it’s been some time since I last reviewed a Marvel-DC crossover comic book. That being said, you can read about my retro comic book reviews of Batman versus The Incredible Hulk and Superman and Spider-Man on this website.

For this new retro review, we will focus on the 1995 crossover that brought two of Marvel and DC’s icons together for the first time – Spider-Man and Batman! To put things in perspective, the 1990s still remembered as the decade when Bane broke Batman’s back while the publishing of Spider-Man comic books became highly controversial with the Spider-Clone Saga. In the 1995 crossover produced the two comic book giants, Spider-Man and Batman are presented in their classic identities as Peter Parker and Bruce Wayne.

With those details laid down, here is a look back at Spider-Man and Batman: Disordered Minds published in 1995 by Marvel Comics and DC Comics with a story written by J.M. DeMatteis and drawn by Mark Bagley.

The cover.

Early story

The story begins with a nightmare in which Peter Parker’s Uncle Ben got shot by an armed man in the presence of Aunt May inside their home. Immediately Spider-Man arrives and grabs the man by the neck. The armed man creepily laughs and his face suddenly turns into the Joker. Peter Parker wakes up in bed with Mary Jane on his side. After a short talk with his wife, Peter decides to leave their apartment and swing around the city as Spider-Man.

In another nightmare, a very young Bruce Wayne witnesses the death of his parents caused by a man with a gun. He suddenly turns into Batman and grabs the gunman by the neck. The gunman suddenly turns into the horrific Carnage. Bruce wakes up and decides to reflect. As soon as his butler Alfred opens the door to check on him, Bruce immediately leaves as Batman in the middle of the night.

Somewhere that same night inside a secret facility of the Ravencroft Institute, Cletus Kasady/Carnage is restrained in a secured chamber surrounded by armed security personnel with Spider-Man and psychotherapist Ashley Kafka watching him…

Quality

The two superhero icons together.

I’ll start first with the visual quality of this crossover comic book. Mark Bagley, who was the lead artist on Marvel’s Amazing Spider-Man comic book series, delivered an unsurprisingly stylized look at the two superhero icons, super villains and characters, as well as on DC’s Gotham City (which was the most prominent location in the story).

While Bagley’s work on Spider-Man and the characters associated with him were typical of his Amazing Spider-Man of the decade, I can say that his take on Batman, Joker, Alfred, the Bat Cave and others on the DC Comics side resulted a unique look. Bagley drew Joker looking sinister, maniacal, clueless and even tamed as the plot progressed. Bagley’s Batman has a larger yet familiar style of muscular body compared to Spider-Man, and the visual presentation of his cape ranged from dynamic to looking authoritarian. There were however a few moments wherein Bagley went over the limit on emphasizing the length of Batman’s cape which resulted a few inaccuracies. Remember how there were times that Bagley drew Marvel characters’ thighs to look excessive with muscle? You will see that too on Batman here.

When it comes to artistic dynamism, it is clear that Bagley pushed himself hard creating some mixed results. Some scenes (action scenes and talk scenes included) had the appropriate amount of flash and style, while other scenes had an excessive amount. When it came to spectacle, Bagley succeeded in making the action, hard-hitting moments and explosions look very lively. To be clear, this comic book is entertaining to look at but ultimately it will resonate best with readers who are best familiar to the way Bagley draws.

For the storytelling, J.M. DeMatteis crafted a script that did not reach its full potential as there were obvious limits imposed to ensure equality on presenting the characters and the situations. This explains why in the beginning Spider-Man and Batman each had nightmares related to their respective past and end up seeing their respective super villains interchanged (Spider-Man sees Joker, Batman sees Carnage). The characters of Ashley Kafka and Cassandra Briar are not only looking too similar to each other (just imagine their characters having no colors), they both feel like cardboard cut-outs of a single character who specializes on analyzing people with dangerous minds and coming up with solutions to help them. The more known supporting characters from the respective sides of the two icons – Mary Jane and butler Alfred – made short appearances but did not really contribute much to the plot.

The limitations are also felt on the way Spider-Man and Batman – plus Carnage and Joker – were presented, right down to their interactions with each other. While it was expected that Batman and Spider-Man would be brought together by an unfortunate development, the complete absence of a fight between the two superhero icons was itself the biggest surprise here effectively defying crossover superhero tradition. Even without a fight, you will see Batman and Spider-Man do things separately in accordance to their respective traditions or character traits before getting back together leading to the big conflict with the super villains.

As for Joker and Carnage being together, the spotlight on them in this comic book is pretty limited. There simply is not enough space in this comic book to bring out the full potential of the two super villains who each are known to be murderers and psychologically dangerous. What is interesting in their limited time together is that the story emphasized the differences between them when it comes harming people. The Joker has his own sadistic style of leading people to their deaths in time-consuming ways which is opposite of the quick deaths Carnage enjoys. Considering their respective reputations, it is just a shame that this comic book not only failed to bring out the full potential of Carnage-Joker, it also failed to establish them as clear and present dangers to the public.

More on the plot itself in relation to the comic book sub-title “Disordered Minds”, the elements of mental instability, psycho-therapy, psychology and rehabilitation are present but they are all thrown out by the time the second half of the story begins, clearly making space for the crossover dynamics of Batman, Spider-Man, Joker and Carnage.

Conclusion

Joker and Carnage.

Spider-Man and Batman: Disordered Minds (1995) is a flawed crossover event comic book that just so happens to have more positive stuff than negative ones. It is enjoyable but not great and certainly not memorable. The imposed limits on the presentation made this comic book’s story feel very staged and predictable. With what little creative space was left, it is quite an achievement for the creative team to tell a cohesive and stuffed story (note: there is a lot of filler and some psychology related stuff may not interest some readers) while featuring Batman and Spider-Man the best way they could. It has enough superhero spectacle to be enjoyed although the interactions between Batman and Spider-Man and between Joker and Carnage could have been better.

If you are seriously planning to buy an existing hard copy of Spider-Man and Batman: Disordered Minds (1995) be aware that as of this writing, MileHighComics.com shows that a near-mint copy costs $120 while the near-mint copy of the signed-and-numbered edition is at $120.

Overall, Spider-Man and Batman: Disordered Minds (1995) is satisfactory.

+++++

Thank you for reading. If you find this article engaging, please click the like button below and also please consider sharing this article to others. If you are looking for a copywriter to create content for your special project or business, check out my services and my portfolio. Feel free to contact me with a private message. Also please feel free to visit my Facebook page Author Carlo Carrasco and follow me on Twitter at  @HavenorFantasy as well as on Tumblr at https://carlocarrasco.tumblr.com/

A Look Back at Spider-Man 2099 #4 (1993)

Disclaimer: This is my original work with details sourced from reading the comic book and doing personal research. Anyone who wants to use this article, in part or in whole, needs to secure first my permission and agree to cite me as the source and author. Let it be known that any unauthorized use of this article will constrain the author to pursue the remedies under R.A. No. 8293, the Revised Penal Code, and/or all applicable legal actions under the laws of the Philippines.

Welcome back, superhero enthusiasts, 1990s culture enthusiasts, and comic book collectors! Today we revisit the world of 2099 within the universe of Marvel Comics back in the 1990s, specifically through the Spider-Man 2099 monthly series.

Today we will look back at the early development of futuristic Spider-Man as published way back in 1993. The first three issues (read also my reviews of issue #2 and #3) formed a solid foundation on establishing Miguel O’Hara as his era’s Spider-Man thanks mainly to the high-quality writing done by Peter David. What issue #4 will deliver, we will find out here.

With those details laid down, here is a look back at Spider-Man 2099 #4, published in 1993 by Marvel Comics with a story written by Peter David and drawn by Ricky Leonardi.

The cover.

Early story

The story begins with Gabriel O’Hara (Miguel’s brother) and Kasey Nash trying to have a good time together inside a vehicle until a man armed with a sword interrupts them and tries to take the lady with him. As Gabriel makes his move to help Kasey, the swordman throws two sharp projectiles at him and moves away with the lady.

Over at the Babylon Towers residence, Miguel O’Hara gets visited by his boss Tyler Stone accompanied by armed personnel. Not realizing that Spider-Man 2099 and Miguel are one and the same person, Tyler tells him that the sudden appearance of the crawler put Alchemax on edge.

Tyler proposes peace between him and Miguel, offering him more of the hyper addictive substance Rapture. He tells him that Aaron Delgato was identified as the mysterious Spider-Man…   

Quality

Miguel O’Hara and his brother Gabriel ride and talk.

The plot really thickened in this comic book resulting a few very interesting sub-plot branches as well as more depth on the development of Miguel O’Hara. I really like the way Peter David explored the corporate side of Miguel’s life here creating suspense about Tyler’s limited knowledge of the Alchemax incidents that happened in issues #1 and #2 which actually involved the protagonist witnessing the fall of his corporate rival Aaron (the same guy responsible for the genetic manipulation of Miguel into Spider-Man). This comic book also focuses on the strained relationship Miguel has with his brother Gabriel who clearly lacks the will to be personally responsible.

I also enjoyed the way Miguel reacts to the classic Spider-Man expression of “with great power comes great responsibility” as he struggles to set things right even as being a civilian and a superhero in his society has major hassles.

The anticipated battle between Spider-Man and the sword-wielding Specialist was structured nicely. Instead of being the typical good-versus-evil conflict, what was presented started with nice moments as Spider-Man still struggles to make the best out of his capabilities. Be aware that the fight does not conclude in this issue.

Conclusion

Miguel getting ready for work while having his Spider-Man costume worn.

Spider-Man 2099 #4 (1993) is a solid comic book to read. It had a nice balance of character development, plot with twists here and there, as well as a good amount of action and thrills. Its best feature, as expected, was the further development of the protagonist and you will see more of Miguel than Spider-Man. By the end of this comic book, I really felt I got to know Miguel more as a person, and not a mere character.

If you are seriously planning to buy an existing hard copy of Spider-Man 2099 #4 (1993) be aware that as of this writing, MileHighComics.com shows that the near-mint copy of the regular edition costs $30 while the near-mint copy of the newsstand edition costs $90.

Overall, Spider-Man 2099 #4 (1993) is recommended.

+++++

Thank you for reading. If you find this article engaging, please click the like button below and also please consider sharing this article to others. If you are looking for a copywriter to create content for your special project or business, check out my services and my portfolio. Feel free to contact me with a private message. Also please feel free to visit my Facebook page Author Carlo Carrasco and follow me on Twitter at  @HavenorFantasy as well as on Tumblr at https://carlocarrasco.tumblr.com/

A Look Back at Spider-Man 2099 #3 (1993)

Disclaimer: This is my original work with details sourced from reading the comic book and doing personal research. Anyone who wants to use this article, in part or in whole, needs to secure first my permission and agree to cite me as the source and author. Let it be known that any unauthorized use of this article will constrain the author to pursue the remedies under R.A. No. 8293, the Revised Penal Code, and/or all applicable legal actions under the laws of the Philippines.

Welcome back, superhero enthusiasts, 1990s culture enthusiasts and comic book collectors! Today we revisit the world of 2099 within the universe of Marvel Comics back in the 1990s, specifically through the Spider-Man 2099 monthly series.

This time around, we take a look back at the early stage of the futuristic Spider-Man’s story and learn more about Miguel’s struggle in becoming something he was not ready for. On my part, the 3rd issue of Spider-Man 2099 was the first-ever hard copy of the monthly series I bought.

With those details laid down, here is a look back at Spider-Man 2099 #3, published in 1993 by Marvel Comics with a story written by Peter David and drawn by Rick Leonardi.

The cover.

Early story

The story begins immediately after the ending of issue #2 with Miguel O’Hara in disguise as Spider-Man facing off with Venture who has been working for Alchemax’s head to find precisely him. The presence of idolaters of Thor view Venture as an enemy and Spider-Man (who knows he is being hunted by the cybernetic guy) tells them to get back to stay out of danger.

Instead of listening to him, the idolaters did the foolish thing by physically attacking Venture who is just too proficient in combat and his high-tech weapon hurts them. With great risk, Spider-Man leaps to Venture to try to convince him to leave him alone. Unfortunately he loses his balance and gets touched by Venture’s weapon which leaves his right arm numb.

Venture tells Spider-Man that Alchemax wants him…

Quality

Even though he has a numb right arm, Spider-Man 2099 still got up-close and personal with Venture.

This comic book is one action-packed thrill ride laced with solid character development. While issues #1 and #2 showed how Miguel O’Hara became Spider-Man of 2099, this story shows him in his first-ever battle with someone who happens to be doing a mission for Alchemax (Miguel’s employer no less).

Peter David carefully structured the story and the result were lots of moments in which Spider-Man 2099 witnesses the unexpected happenings which readers can relate with. As Spider-Man learns more about the enhancements within him (better reflexes, ability to leap far, etc.), he gets to do the unbelievable which is a classic superhero trope done but within a futuristic, science fiction setting. What he does with his abilities, he does his best to adjust himself. I also like the fact that Spider-Man of 2099 does not have the Spider Sense of the classic Spider-Man (Peter Park) which in a creative way adds to the suspenseful moments in this comic book series.

As for Venture, he is not your typical villain nor is a one-dimension character designed to merely provide opposition to the protagonist. He is a cybernetic bounty hunter on a mission and does not harbor any personal grudge nor hatred against Spider-Man. On his own, Venture is deadly and is clearly one of the best villains to ever take on Spidey 2099.

Conclusion

The idolaters and worshipers of Thor take on Venture which Spider-Man witnesses.

Spider-Man 2099 #3 (1993) is a very solid read and it succeeded in further defining the futuristic Spider-Man’s personality as well as his origin. The first time I read this comic book, I got very immersed in learning about the protagonist and how he does his best to save himself and overcome the opposition while finding out ways to ensure that bystanders and witnesses will not get hurt. This comic book also has an immersive sci-fi setting and shows more of the society of 2099. I can clearly say that this is one enjoyable and compelling comic book which aged nicely to this day.

If you are seriously planning to buy an existing hard copy of Spider-Man 2099 #3 (1993) be aware that as of this writing, MileHighComics.com shows that the near-mint copy of the regular edition costs $30 while the near-mint copy of the newsstand edition costs $90.

Overall, Spider-Man 2099 #3 (1993) is highly recommended.

+++++

Thank you for reading. If you find this article engaging, please click the like button below and also please consider sharing this article to others. If you are looking for a copywriter to create content for your special project or business, check out my services and my portfolio. Feel free to contact me with a private message. Also please feel free to visit my Facebook page Author Carlo Carrasco and follow me on Twitter at  @HavenorFantasy as well as on Tumblr at https://carlocarrasco.tumblr.com/

A Look Back at Spider-Man 2099 #39 (1995)

Disclaimer: This is my original work with details sourced from reading the comic book and doing personal research. Anyone who wants to use this article, in part or in whole, needs to secure first my permission and agree to cite me as the source and author. Let it be known that any unauthorized use of this article will constrain the author to pursue the remedies under R.A. No. 8293, the Revised Penal Code, and/or all applicable legal actions under the laws of the Philippines.

Welcome back, superhero enthusiasts, 1990s culture enthusiasts and comic book collectors! Today we revisit the world of 2099 within the universe of Marvel Comics back in the 1990s, specifically through the Spider-Man 2099 monthly series.

In this retro review, the Venom 2099 storyline continues (for my previous reviews, click here, here, here and here). Since my previous review, the futuristic Venom has been captured by Spider-Man and is now in the custody of Alchemax where Miguel O’Hara (Spider-Man of 2099) holds considerable power and authority. As seen in issue #38, Miguel’s rage was clearly affecting him and pushed him to the point of wanting revenge (by means of death, no less) over the death of Dana.

With those details laid down, here is a look back at Spider-Man 2099 #39, published in 1995 by Marvel Comics with a story written by Peter David and drawn by Andrew Wildman.

The cover.

Early story

The story begins with Miguel O’Hara, still impacted by Dana’s death and what he personally discovered about Venom, walking through the offices of an Alchemax building where several employees greet him formally which he does not seem to enjoy. He walks into a laboratory where he sees the two that compose Venom – Kron Stone and the symbiote (living costume) – contained separately with hard glass containers.

Kron Stone, who is related to the powerful Tyler Stone and was responsible for the death of the family of Jake Gallows/Punisher 2099, was declared dead which puzzles Miguel. As the two exchange words, it turns out Kron and Miguel knew each other from long ago. Upon the orders of Miguel, the scientists left the laboratory which gave their boss more privacy to exchange words with the trapped Kron who called him gutless.

Miguel then releases Kron from containment (but still separated from the symbiote), declares terms for their private fist fight (which Kron accepts), and begins to fight him…

Quality

Spider-Man, in his form as Miguel O’Hara, spends time with Xina.

Not surprisingly, the high level of quality and engagement of the writing here is successfully maintained by Peter David and it is very clear to me that he had planned to dramatically shift the direction of the Spider-Man 2099 series and impact the key characters as the story of Venom 2099 went on.

That being said, Peter David went on to not only show Miguel literally burning with rage but also dramatized his move towards the extreme. Not only do we get to see Miguel really abusing his Alchemax authority, he also gets violent with Kron Stone who was powerless without the symbiote. These scenes clearly show that the border that separates good and evil got blurred which showed a very dark side of Miguel O’Hara struggling with his rage, emotions and whatever sanity he still has left.

To be clear, the story here was not purely about Miguel and Kron. There is also the scene in which a cooled down Miguel spends time with Xina who made clear to him her reaction over Dana’s death. Peter David also took the opportunity to not only show more of the return Vulture 2099 but also brought in the 2099 version of Green Goblin simply called Goblin who clearly has an agenda against Spider-Man which adds to the suspense and the overall narrative of the series. The appearance of Goblin also sheds light on the nature of vigilantism and elements of chaos within the 2099 universe.

Conclusion

Miguel and his half-brother Kron Stone begin their fight.

I can say that Spider-Man 2099 #39 (1995) is a very solid read. Not only did the Venom 2099 storyline reflect the serious changes on the characters, it is also led to a bold new direction for the monthly series. Carrying on the dramatic stuff from the previous issues, this comic book also serves as a character examination on Miguel O’Hara which will compel not only the fans but also comic book readers to reflect about what they knew about Spider-Man of the far future and speculate as to how he will turn out and how he would impact the people around him.

If you are seriously planning to buy an existing hard copy of Spider-Man 2099 #39 (1995) be aware that as of this writing, MileHighComics.com shows that the near-mint copy of the regular edition costs $80 while the near-mint copy of the newsstand edition costs $240.

Overall, Spider-Man 2099 #39 (1995) is highly recommended.

+++++

Thank you for reading. If you find this article engaging, please click the like button below and also please consider sharing this article to others. If you are looking for a copywriter to create content for your special project or business, check out my services and my portfolio. Feel free to contact me with a private message. Also please feel free to visit my Facebook page Author Carlo Carrasco and follow me on Twitter at  @HavenorFantasy as well as on Tumblr at https://carlocarrasco.tumblr.com/

A Look Back at Spider-Man 2099 #38 (1995)

Disclaimer: This is my original work with details sourced from reading the comic book and doing personal research. Anyone who wants to use this article, in part or in whole, needs to secure first my permission and agree to cite me as the source and author. Let it be known that any unauthorized use of this article will constrain the author to pursue the remedies under R.A. No. 8293, the Revised Penal Code, and/or all applicable legal actions under the laws of the Philippines.

Welcome back, superhero enthusiasts, 1990s culture enthusiasts and comic book collectors! Today we revisit the world of 2099 within the universe of Marvel Comics as published back in the 1990s, specifically through the Spider-Man 2099 monthly series.

Back in 2020, I reviewed the three key issues of Spider-Man 2099 (click here, here and here) particularly with the entry of Venom 2099. While tragedy happened in issue #37 (a very powerful story), the futuristic Venom was still on the loose.

With those details laid down, here is a look back at Spider-Man 2099 #38, published in 1995 by Marvel Comics with a story written by Peter David and drawn by Andrew Wildman.

The cover.

Early story

The story begins with Spider-Man 2099 grieving over the death of Dana in the presence of Xina and two armed law enforcers. As one of the law enforcers approach him, Spider-Man hits and damages his helmet. The other law enforcer tells his companion to give Spider-Man some room. The grieving web-slinger asks where Venom 2099 is.

Meanwhile at another location, Miguel O’Hara’s mother saw the breaking news on TV about what the tragedy and Dana’s death. Her son Gabriel comes in and gets updated about what happened. As soon as he heard Dana’s name, he becomes concerned and focuses on the TV screen. As images of Spider-Man and Dana appeared, Gabriel begins to make a connection between them and punches the TV screen hard…

Quality

A very angry Miguel O’Hara using his corporate authority to find and get Venom 2099.

If you enjoyed the storytelling, tension and payoff that happened in issue #37, I can confirm to you that great stuff from that comic book continued smoothly in this comic book. As before, Peter David’s writing remains very engaging and gripping. So much so, issue #38 is a very believable and natural continuation of the events of the previous issue. In fact, the tension that started even as far as issue #35 continued in this comic book and at the same time David succeeded in developing the key characters further. Here, the death of Dana impacts not only Spider-Man/Miguel O’Hara, but also those connected with him.

Apart from the impact Venom 2099 left behind on those whom he victimized, the key selling point in this comic book was the portrayal of Miguel O’Hara wanting not only vengeance but also craves for the death of the vicious supervillain. I really find it very gripping to see Miguel using his authority as a high-ranking executive of his company to not only find Venom but also use company resources to get him. There was also the scene in which Miguel wants the captured living piece of Venom’s symbiote become dead which reflects the rage burning in him.

The way Peter David wrote Miguel’s rage is compelling not only because of the dramatics involved but also because it raises new questions about the personality and heart protagonist of the Spider-Man 2099 monthly series. I found myself wondering the following: Is Miguel O’Hara on the way to becoming a villain? Does he realize he is going off-track and could become a danger to others once he gets his way with Venom 2099?

When it comes to the visuals, Andrew Wildman did a really good job her. Not only was his art more detailed than what Rick Leonardi came up with, Wildman also brought to life the emotions of the characters through detailed facial expressions. Wildman also showed how skilled he is with pacing the story as well as being strategic on visualizing the spectacle.

Conclusion

Spider-Man 2099 in a very emotional state over the death of Dana.

I can clearly say that Spider-Man 2099 #38 (1995) is a great comic book to read. It is indeed a very worthwhile follow-up to the powerful and tragic story of issue #37 and the tension that started in issue #35 continued strongly in this comic book. Very clearly, Peter David carefully planned to shake up the Spider-Man 2099 series of the 1990s even as he built up Venom 2099 as the deadliest foe the futuristic Spider-Man faced. I should also state that the Spider-Man 2099 – Venom 2099 rivalry has a distinct style and flavor of its own, and there was simply nothing ripped off from the 20th century Spider-Man – Venom (Peter Parker and Eddie Brock) rivalry.

If you are seriously planning to buy an existing hard copy of Spider-Man 2099 #38 (1995) be aware that as of this writing, MileHighComics.com shows that the near-mint copy of the regular edition costs $80 while the near-mint copy of the newsstand edition costs $240. Spider-Man 2099 #38 (1995) also comes with a Venom 2099 cover edition which costs $200 for a near-mint copy.

Overall, Spider-Man 2099 #38 (1995) is highly recommended!

+++++

Thank you for reading. If you find this article engaging, please click the like button below and also please consider sharing this article to others. If you are looking for a copywriter to create content for your special project or business, check out my services and my portfolio. Feel free to contact me with a private message. Also please feel free to visit my Facebook page Author Carlo Carrasco and follow me on Twitter at  @HavenorFantasy as well as on Tumblr at https://carlocarrasco.tumblr.com/

A Look Back at Dazzler #2 (1981)

Disclaimer: This is my original work with details sourced from reading the comic book and doing personal research. Anyone who wants to use this article, in part or in whole, needs to secure first my permission and agree to cite me as the source and author. Let it be known that any unauthorized use of this article will constrain the author to pursue the remedies under R.A. No. 8293, the Revised Penal Code, and/or all applicable legal actions under the laws of the Philippines.

Welcome back, superhero enthusiasts, comic collectors, 1990s culture enthusiasts and fans of Marvel Comics! Way back in 1981, Marvel Comics had a successful comic book series launch with Dazzler #1 (read my retro review by clicking here) which sold over 400,000 copies and further sealed Dazzler as an advantageous addition for the company’s superhero comics franchise. Dazzler, a creation of a deal between Marvel and a certain record company, debuted in Uncanny X-Men #130 and got involved with the X-Men until Uncanny X-Men #131. Dazzler appeared with Marvel’s famous webslinger in Amazing Spider-Man #203.

Dazzler #1 ended with a brewing rivalry between the title character and Enchantress. With those laid down, here is a look back at Dazzler #2, published in 1981 by Marvel Comics with a story written by Tom DeFalco and drawn by John Romita, Jr.

The cover.

Early story

The story begins with Dazzler preparing for her big show at Numero Uno, a prestigious disco in the city of New York. Just before the show starts, a huge crowd of people are in attendance and among them are Wolverine, Peter Parker (Spider-Man), Captain America, Johnny Storm, Ben Grimm and Tony Stark (Iron Man) to name some.

Just as Dazzler appears on-stage and draws a frenzied applause from the audience, the revenger-hungry Enchantress slowly makes her moves to ruin the lady who outclassed her to be the main attraction of the club. Even with her desire for revenge, the Enchantress decides to use her magic sparingly on Dazzler. In the audience, Peter Parker/Spider-Man begins to sense something is about to happen…

Quality

This shows what this comic book is really about.

The way the story was told is disappointing. This is because the spotlight on Dazzler and her anticipated conflict with the Enchantress got overwhelmed by the amount of superhero filler on the narrative. To be clear, it is fun and interesting to see a mix of the varied superheroes of Marvel together but this comic book ended up being an all-star showcase (X-Men, Avengers and Fantastic Four members included) than a real, standalone Dazzler story. In fairness, Tom DeFalco showed how skilled he is with plot structuring and capturing the personalities and tropes of the different superheroes (note: unsurprisingly, DeFalco accurately captured Spider-Man’s personality and he went on to be a major force behind Spider-Man comic books) but that does not change the fact that this comic book should have been more about Dazzler.

When it comes to the conflict between Dazzler and the Enchantress, it was executed with no depth at all. Literally speaking, there is not enough meat to consume here and it the conflict really ended up looking very rushed. As if that was not bad enough, there is not enough justification to show Dazzler defeating a monster summoned by the Enchantress.  Considering how shallow the Dazzler-Enchantress match-up turned out, it’s no wonder why there is so much Marvel all-star filler in the script.

As for the late-stage attempt to shift the narrative back to Dazzler, it is rather over-the-top and unsatisfying.

Conclusion

You recognize someone in the audience?

Dazzler #2 (1981) is an example about a creative team’s lack of confidence on crafting a decent story to develop a new superhero and ultimately resorting to fill it with a mix of other superheroes involved which itself symbolizes desperation. This comic book is not really a Dazzler story but an all-star showcase with Dazzler becoming a minor character in her own monthly series.

If you are seriously planning to buy an existing hard copy of Dazzler #2 (1981), be aware that as of this writing, MileHighComics.com shows that the near-mint copy of the regular edition costs $28 while the near-mint copy of the newsstand edition costs $60.

Overall, Dazzler #2 (1981) is unsatisfactory. Anyone who loves Dazzler or who wishes to discover more of her will be disappointed with this comic book.

+++++

Thank you for reading. If you find this article engaging, please click the like button below and also please consider sharing this article to others. If you are looking for a copywriter to create content for your special project or business, check out my services and my portfolio. Feel free to contact me as well. Also please feel free to visit my Facebook page Author Carlo Carrasco and follow me at HavenorFantasy@twitter.com

A Look Back at Dazzler #1 (1981)

Disclaimer: This is my original work with details sourced from reading the comic book and doing personal research. Anyone who wants to use this article, in part or in whole, needs to secure first my permission and agree to cite me as the source and author. Let it be known that any unauthorized use of this article will constrain the author to pursue the remedies under R.A. No. 8293, the Revised Penal Code, and/or all applicable legal actions under the laws of the Philippines.

Welcome back, superhero enthusiasts, comic collectors, 1990s culture enthusiasts and fans of Marvel Comics! Previously, I reviewed Uncanny X-Men #130 which was the first appearance of Dazzler who went on to become one of the most notable new characters of Marvel Comics in the 1980s. After appearing in Uncanny X-Men #131 and Amazing Spider-Man #203, Dazzler became more prominent among all of Marvel’s superheroes as the publisher launched an all-new monthly series featuring her. There is more to that than meets the eye, however.

In his article titled “Dazzler and Me”, Danny Fingeroth wrote: Marvel decided to tray an experiment with the relatively new “direct market” – comic book shops. It was decided that Dazzler #1 would only be available in comic book shops, not at traditional newsstands.

Dazzler #1 sold over 400,000 copies.

Even the top-selling comics of the era sold perhaps 250,000 copies. So, the first issue, anyway, was a major hit.

Apart from the confirmed commercial success of the comic book, it is a wonder if it is still good to read by today’s standards. To find out, here is a look back at Dazzler #1, published in 1981 by Marvel Comics with a story written by Tom DeFalco and drawn by John Romita, Jr.

The cover.

Early story

The story begins with Dazzler running away from four armed men who had been following her since she left the disco. She finds herself corned at the dead end of an alley as the men approach her. While pretending to be reaching for her make-up in the bag, Dazzler grabs and activates her portable radio which plays music. With the music turned on, she uses her power to convert it all into a dazzling display of light and color which makes the men disoriented.

While swinging nearby, Spider-Man notices the display of light but before he begins his approach, Dazzler makes her move to knock two men out. Another man fires his gun and his bullet ricochets until it hits the portable radio stops the music and Dazzler’s lights altogether leaving her vulnerable once again…

Quality

This page alone establishes Dazzler as a person struggling to make ends meet.

As far as telling a Dazzler story goes, this comic book is the complete package and it’s got very solid writing! Apart from showing what happened to her after her appearances in the Uncanny X-Men and Amazing Spider-Man series, this comic book formally introduces Dazzler in her civilian identity as Alison Blaire and thanks to efficient writing, it also reveals threads of her past and how her mutant powers manifested. Not only that, readers will get to see the title character as a typical person who is struggling to make ends meet even though she does her best with entertainment as a career.

Strangely, the focus on Dazzler is relatively light in content and the result is several pages of Marvel universe-related filler which shows several other characters like Captain America, Iron Man, Storm, Wolverine and others present with little to no connection with the title character. The X-Men scene is a nice touch as it will remind readers about Dazzler’s first interaction with them.

As a teenager, Alison Blaire’s power begins to manifest during this particular event in her life.

To build-up the first challenge for Dazzler, this comic book has the Enchantress as the villainess and ironically it also had some room of character development for her. Clearly this was done not only to build up anticipation for the next issue but to make readers root for Dazzler some more. In retrospect, the Enchantress would later emerge as an important figure in 1984’s crossover storyline Secret Wars.

Conclusion

The scene involving the X-Men is a nice touch as it connects with Dazzler’s previous interaction with them.

While it is indeed a product of the early 1980s carrying influences from the 1970s New York club scene, Dazzler #1 (1981) is still fun and engaging to read. Clearly this comic book is a must-have for anyone who loves Dazzler and it should be entertaining enough for geeks who love the 1980s and the Marvel-related crossovers of the time. Very clearly, this comic book succeeded in introducing and developing Dazzler as a person (as opposed to being a super hero) and the background story established fits in nicely with the character’s first appearance in Uncanny X-Men #130. Very clearly, there is a lot more to Dazzler than her unique super power and her disco look.

If you are seriously planning to buy an existing hard copy of Dazzler #1 (1981), be aware that as of this writing, MileHighComics.com shows that the near-mint copy of the comic book costs $70.

Overall, Dazzler #1 (1981) is highly recommended!

+++++

Thank you for reading. If you find this article engaging, please click the like button below and also please consider sharing this article to others. If you are looking for a copywriter to create content for your special project or business, check out my services and my portfolio. Feel free to contact me as well. Also please feel free to visit my Facebook page Author Carlo Carrasco and follow me at HavenorFantasy@twitter.com

A Look Back at Amazing Spider-Man #203 (1980)

Disclaimer: This is my original work with details sourced from reading the comic book and doing personal research. Anyone who wants to use this article, in part or in whole, needs to secure first my permission and agree to cite me as the source and author. Let it be known that any unauthorized use of this article will constrain the author to pursue the remedies under R.A. No. 8293, the Revised Penal Code, and/or all applicable legal actions under the laws of the Philippines.

Welcome back, superhero enthusiasts, 1980s culture enthusiasts, comic book collectors and fans of Marvel Comics! Previously I reviewed Uncanny X-Men #130 (1980) which was the first appearance of Dazzler who eventually became a popular figure for Marvel Comics in the 1980s. Before the company published a monthly comic book series featuring her, Dazzler made another appearance in an issue of the Amazing Spider-Man which was released just a few months after her debut. This, of course, led to a crossover with the iconic webslinger himself.

With those details laid down, here is a look back at Amazing Spider-Man #203, published in 1980 by Marvel Comics with a story written by Marv Wolfman and drawn by Keith Pollard.

The cover.

Early story

The story begins during a night in the city where a swinging Spider-Man gets distracted by fast skating Dazzler who is being followed closely by a streak of light. After Spider-Man speculates about the possible return of Will-o-the-Wisp, he decides to intervene and pulls Dazzler off the road and to himself above. Dazzler faints suddenly.

A short while afterward, Dazzler wakes up and starts talking with the webslinger. In response to the mention of Will-o-the-Wisp’s name, she claims to not knowing what he was talking about. As their talk goes on, Dazzler hears music from the street which strengthens her. Using the small mirror globe she is wearing, Dazzler hits Spider-Man with a blast of light pushing him off the building…

Quality

The crossover between Dazzler and Spider-Man is the main feature of this comic book.

This is one fun crossover between the iconic Spider-Man and the brand-new Dazzler. Marv Wolfman wrote a story that not only followed the further adventures of the webslinger, it also gave readers more to see and learn about Dazzler who just had her unexpected adventure with the X-Men months earlier (in Uncanny X-Men #130 and #131). By connecting this story with those two X-Men comic books, it really looked like just got back home in the city only to get chased by streaking light. The interactions between Dazzler and Spider-Man were entertaining. While Dazzler is a known entertainer among New Yorkers, it was the webslinger who remains the big, popular local figure which is clearly reflected in the singer’s verbal exchange with him.

The villain in this comic book, Lightmaster, is pretty cartoonish visually but his super power and high intelligence do make him look threatening. I like the way the story was crafted with concepts that link Lightmaster with Dazzler. Both of them are connected with light and while Dazzler is able to absorb sound like a form of energy and create light beams, Lightmaster has the means to tap on her power and use it for his advantage. There is also another capability of Lightmaster’s which I will just leave unrevealed and you who read this should find out about it.

Conclusion

Lightmaster enters the scene.

Amazing Spider-Man #203 (1980) is a very old yet fun comic book that fans of Spider-Man and Dazzler will enjoy. Not only does it have a meaty encounter between the two, it also succeeds in chronicling Spider-Man’s life both in costume and as civilian Peter Parker. Going back to Dazzler, there is not much character development for her here but that is understandable as such emphasis was only waiting to happen in her own monthly comic book series.

If you are seriously planning to buy an existing hard copy of Amazing Spider-Man #203 (1980), be aware that as of this writing, MileHighComics.com shows that the near-mint copy of the regular edition costs $94 while the near-mint copy of the newsstand edition costs $150.

Overall, Amazing Spider-Man #203 (1980) is recommended.

+++++

Thank you for reading. If you find this article engaging, please click the like button below and also please consider sharing this article to others. If you are looking for a copywriter to create content for your special project or business, check out my services and my portfolio. Feel free to contact me as well. Also please feel free to visit my Facebook page Author Carlo Carrasco and follow me at HavenorFantasy@twitter.com